Some of your objectives are clearer...thank you. It sounds as if you plan to perform additional queries that were not initially described. For those that were, my earlier posting offers one way to perform the counts of time steps where sequential steps "exceed" some threshold. For example, if one step has a metric value of x, then exceeding that metric by more than 10% means the subsequent step is >1.1x, and exceeding that metric by more than -10% means the subsequent step is <0.9x. In other words, the step size of the measured value is larger than 10% of the original step's value in some direction. The "count" approach described earlier uses inputs of > and < and some percentage value.

I completely misinterpreted your initial description of a "shortest move > 10%". I assumed that meant which adjacent time steps yielded a movement of >10%, and of those, which was closest to 10%. Your clarification says that for each time step, look at the metric (apparently a temperature) and find the first date on which the metric has been exceeded by at least 10%. The working example below shows one way to do this with helper columns. Not all of the helper columns are necessary, and there are other ways to accomplish everything shown, especially with Excel 365 (which I do not have). Your input is the blue shaded cell, where a positive percentage means you are looking for the next time step where the current temperature is exceeded by that percentage. A negative percentage says to find the next time step where the temperature has decreased by at least that percentage. In this example, I used -10%, so I am looking for the date when the temperature has decreased 10% relative to my current date's temperature. Each time step potentially generates an answer to this question, so you then need to look through this list of dates, determine the time duration between those dates (I used a simple difference to indicate the number of intervals...if you want the end dates included, then 1 needs to be added), and then find the smallest duration. In this case, the helper columns establish T_threshold (the temperature threshold that must be exceeded based on the current date's temperature)(see column G), the date on which T_threshold is first exceeded (col H), the temperature on that date (col I), and the number of days elapsed before T_threshold was exceeded (col J). Since there may be multiple occasions when this occurs, I2:J3 determine the smallest duration and perform a count of the occurrences. In this case, we learn that the smallest duration is only 1 day and it occurs 4 different times. The formulas in cols L:M build this list of those 4 occasions. Again, there are more efficient ways to build that list with Excel 365's improved function set.

Please see father below some additional commentary about temperature.

I will offer some additional commentary not directly related to the Excel questions. It appears that you are using temperatures as the metrics and have established some percentage of movement in those temperatures as being important. I would advise caution with that approach. The choice of temperature scale will likely change your answers. I don't know what your actual data look like, but if they are based on a non-thermodynamic temperature scale, then it would be prudent to investigate why the analysis should use that scale. Typically, a thermodynamic scale, such as the Kelvin or Rankine scales are used to avoid this issue. As an example, consider the notional example below with evenly spaced time steps and a steady increasing temperature of 2 degrees C per step. For time1, with a temperature of 16 C, we see that its temperature is exceeded at time2, whose temperature is 18 C. But if we do nothing more than convert temperatures from degrees C to Kelvin, then we see that time1's temperature of 289.15 K is exceeded at time13. From a thermodynamics perspective, the latter would be considered the correct answer.