If we are talking about worksheet protected (not workbook protected), then:
Rightclick the sheet tab, leftclick Move or Copy...,
Select Make a Copy (box near bottom)
In the dropdown box select (New Book)
You can then email this single worksheet as a new book. It will still be protected and any event macros associated with the sheet should still work provided they only relate to that sheet. Macros associated with standard macro modules won't work as they are integral to the whole workbook. In that case you would have to email the whole workbook and get the recipient to delete unwanted worksheets.
If you need to remove the sheet protection (eg to change formulas that refer to data on other sheets to values, remove macro buttons from the copy etc) you need to know the password. Assuming that, then you can create a macro button on the master sheet and assign it to a standard module with this code:
ActiveSheet.Unprotect "YOUR PASSWORD HERE"
Selection.PasteSpecial Paste:=xlValues, Operation:=xlNone, SkipBlanks:= _
Application.CutCopyMode = False
ActiveSheet.Protect "YOUR PASSWORD HERE"
MsgBox "Email this workbook. It will then close without saving"
Application.DisplayAlerts = False
Everywhere the code says YOUR PASSWORD HERE replace it with your own password (within the quote marks)
If you do not know the password you will need a password ******* and no doubt someone on this site could provide that as worksheet passwords are not very secure. Afraid I cannot help you if you are talking about workbook protected files, someone else may know.